Inthe June solstice occurs on Saturday, June 20, marking the start of summer in the Northern Hemisphere. This event marks the start of summer in the northern half of the globe.

Inthe June solstice is Saturday, June 20, at P. This date marks the official beginning of summer in the Northern Hemisphere, occurring when Earth arrives at the point in its orbit where the North Pole is at its maximum tilt about It marks the start of summer in the northern half of the globe.

After the solstice, the Sun appears to reverse course and head back in the opposite direction. The motion referred to here is the apparent path of the Sun when one views its position in the sky at the same time each day, for example at local noon. Over the year, its path forms a sort of flattened figure eight, called an analemma.

The timing of the June solstice is not based on a specific calendar date or time; it all depends on when the Sun reaches its northernmost point from the equator. The Summer Solstice is the day with the longest period of sunlight.

Notice how the Sun appears highest in the sky at the solstice; its rays strike Earth at a more direct angle, causing the efficient warming we call summer. See 7 fun facts about the June solstice! Most meteorologists divide the year into four seasons based on the months and the temperature cycle, which allows them to compare and organize climate data more easily.

In this system, summer begins on June 1 and ends on August Astronomically, however, the first day of summer is said to be when the Sun reaches its highest point in the sky, which occurs on the summer solstice June 20— A: Yes! On the solstice, the Sun is at its highest point in the sky and it takes longer for it to rise and to set.

On the winter solsticejust the opposite occurs: The Sun is at its lowest in the sky. A: The summer solstice in the Northern Hemisphere ranges in date from June 20 to This occurs in part because of the difference between the Gregorian calendar system, which normally has days, and the tropical year how long it takes Earth to orbit the Sun oncewhich has about To compensate for the missing fraction of days, the Gregorian calendar adds a leap day about every 4 years, which makes the date for summer jump backward.

Water is slower to heat or cool than air or land. At the summer solstice, the Northern Hemisphere receives the most energy highest intensity from the Sun due to the angle of sunlight and day length. Eventually, the land and, especially, oceans will release stored heat from the summer solstice back into the atmosphere.


Folks celebrated by feasting, dancing, singing, and preparing for the hot summer days ahead. Read more about the ancient Quarter Days!

Looking for a unique way to celebrate the solstice? How about a virtual trip to Stonehenge? For centuries, people have flocked to Wiltshire, England, to visit Stonehenge—a mysterious prehistoric monument.

See more about this ancient site.

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Go strawberry picking.Fire up the grill, because summer is upon us! To make the most of the season, we've rounded up some fantastic summer dinner ideas, ideal for enjoying on a back porch with a pitcher of sweet tea.

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Whether it's some stellar grilling recipes you're after or dishes for using up your fresh summer produce, you'll find everything you need in this list. And if you'd rather avoid the oven or stove on scorching days, there are several recipes that use the grill or can be whipped up without any heating like some delicious summer salads.

For dinners that can feed a crew, check out the Worcestershire-glazed burgers, grilled sausages, or grilled Margherita pizza. If you have a large back porch, you probably host a fair amount of summer dinners, meaning you're likely to be in the market for some summer side dishes as well. Look to the cast iron beans, Parmesan tots, or cauliflower mac-and-cheese for sides that will fill a crowd up.

Don't forget a refreshing batch of summer cocktails that will put anyone in a good mood after a hot day.

Your dinner guests will be pleasantly surprised with these delicious summer dinner ideas that are anything but boring. Get the recipe. Savor all the joys of crispy chicken on a cool summer night with this recipe that puts a lighter spin on the fried dish. Any summer plate, whether it's a picnic or a family dinner, needs a generous scoop of mac and cheese—like this dish that uses cauliflower.

Elevate your pizza game with this grilled pie that you don't even need a pizza stone for—just put it right on the racks. Get the recipe at Ambitious Kitchen. If you grow cherry tomatoes in your backyard, this summery pasta is the solution to that massive harvest.

Get the recipe at Half Baked Harvest.

Summer School 2020

Host your own shrimp boil at home by using your grill for a meal that's easy to set up and clean up. Get the recipe at Cooking Classy. Finish these Italian sausages with a variety of toppings. If you usually go with store-bought patties, this recipe will have you making your own from now on.Miller traces his irreverent and subversive streak to a psychedelic experience during the particularly sweltering summer of What ritual did some celebrities start engaging in over the summer?

I was a bridesmaid this summer for a couple that met at The Ball in It is a bird of passage, visiting its customary breeding places in the summer and wintering in southern Europe. The summer that followed was cold and ungenial, with easterly winds, though fortunately it brightened up somewhat for the harvest. In the summer of baby Theodore was born, and none from Fort Sully came to our annual meeting. This one lives in the eastern half of the country in summerand goes far south for the winter.

During the summer months they should be protected from the direct rays of the sun, and kept well syringed. If so, see if you can dig up the meanings of these vocab words from the popular novel. Words nearby summer summationsummation gallopsummation methodsummativesummative assessmentsummersummer campsummer complaintsummer cypresssummer diarrheasummer flounder. The word summer is quite old. It's recorded before the year So what does it really mean But if you're looking for even more words to describe summer, here are some sensational synonyms for this season.

Words related to summer vacationsummertimeheatmidsummer. Natural History in Anecdote Various. Nature Near London Richard Jefferies. Mary and I Stephen Return Riggs. Talks about Flowers. Derived forms of summer summerlessadjective summer-likeadjective summerlyadjectiveadverb summeryadjective.

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Also called: summer tree a large horizontal beam or girder, esp one that supports floor joists. See Top 10 Emoji Searches.Summer camp is going to look a lot different this year as parents weigh whether to send their children during the coronavirus pandemic.

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Thousands of camps are making numerous changes emphasizing health and safety, which could mean wearing masks when appropriate and daily cleaning of sports gear and aquatic equipment. The thought of a group of 6- or 7-year-olds excitedly gathering at camp and practicing social distancing or rigid hygiene may not be easy to envision, but the guide provides a host of details about everything from pool safety to cleaning life jackets to prevent the spread of the virus.

Can kids attend camp this summer? What newly released guidelines say

About 20 million children, adolescents and adults enjoy roughly 14, camps across the country every year between day camps and overnight camps. The YMCA runs about 10, day camps on its own, as well as overnight camps.

A majority of the YMCA day camps are planning to open this summer as long as they are in compliance with state and local guidance, while some overnight camps have decided not to open this summer, according to McEntire. Some camps may have shortened sessions and others may be conducting the camp virtually, according to Rosenberg. A host of changes are recommended by the guide, including regular sanitizing, hand-washing, social distancing, staggered meals, smaller group activities and staggered arrivals and pick-ups.

The guide put together by a panel of experts is basically a detailed expansion on the guidance issued by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention regarding summer camps during the pandemic.

The recommendations also include routine cleaning of all outdoor equipment after each use and providing campers with their own equipment like tennis rackets or bows and arrows for the duration of camp if possible. When it comes to pool safety, the guidelines state that there is no current evidence that coronavirus can be spread in a pool or water play area, so properly disinfecting with chlorine or bromine "will likely inactivate the virus in the water.

Other guidelines include physical distancing while swimming, keeping activities confined to the same group of campers and same instructors and regularly cleaning and disinfecting shared equipment like oars and life jackets. Some camps may also plan to screen campers ahead of time with two weeks of temperature checks while also determining if they have been in contact with someone who tested positive.

Campers also could be screened if they have traveled to a hotspot like New York City, which has been the center of a rare and potentially deadly condition linked to COVID in children. Whether campers are given COVID tests is up to the local and state governments and the resources available, according to the experts. Overnight camps are urged to have places to isolate any campers who could have been exposed to COVID, while day camps are recommended to have parents come pick the child up immediately.


There also are many parents who may not have much of a choice when it comes to sending their child to camp this summer. Follow today. New summer camp guidelines released May 18, What could social distancing look like this summer? April 28, Parents As summer plans cancel, parents panic about how to entertain kids. Researchers races to learn more about mystery children's illness tied to coronavirus May 18, Scott Stump.Living along the valleys of the Tigris and EuphratesSumerian farmers grew an abundance of grain and other crops, the surplus from which enabled them to form urban settlements.

The earliest texts come from the cities of Uruk and Jemdet Nasrand date to between c. Most historians have suggested that Sumer was first permanently settled between c.

Others have suggested that the Sumerians were a North African people who migrated from the Green Sahara into the Middle East and were responsible for the spread of farming in the Middle East. These prehistoric people before the Sumerians are now called "proto- Euphrateans " or " Ubaidians ", [24] and are theorized to have evolved from the Samarra culture of northern Mesopotamia.

They drained the marshes for agriculture, developed trade, and established industries, including weaving, leatherwork, metalwork, masonry, and pottery. Some scholars contest the idea of a Proto-Euphratean language or one substrate language; they think the Sumerian language may originally have been that of the hunting and fishing peoples who lived in the marshland and the Eastern Arabia littoral region and were part of the Arabian bifacial culture.

Juris Zarins believes the Sumerians lived along the coast of Eastern Arabiatoday's Persian Gulf region, before it was flooded at the end of the Ice Age. During the 3rd millennium BC, a close cultural symbiosis developed between the Sumerians, who spoke a language isolateand Akkadianswhich gave rise to widespread bilingualism.

The Sumerians progressively lost control to Semitic states from the northwest. Sumer was conquered by the Semitic-speaking kings of the Akkadian Empire around BC short chronologybut Sumerian continued as a sacred language. Native Sumerian rule re-emerged for about a century in the Third Dynasty of Ur at approximately — BC, but the Akkadian language also remained in use for some time.

The Sumerian city of Eriduon the coast of the Persian Gulfis considered to have been one of the oldest citieswhere three separate cultures may have fused: that of peasant Ubaidian farmers, living in mud-brick huts and practicing irrigation; that of mobile nomadic Semitic pastoralists living in black tents and following herds of sheep and goats; and that of fisher folk, living in reed huts in the marshlands, who may have been the ancestors of the Sumerians.

In the late 4th millennium BC, Sumer was divided into many independent city-stateswhich were divided by canals and boundary stones. Each was centered on a temple dedicated to the particular patron god or goddess of the city and ruled over by a priestly governor ensi or by a king lugal who was intimately tied to the city's religious rites.

The five "first" cities, said to have exercised pre-dynastic kingship "before the flood":. The Sumerian city-states rose to power during the prehistoric Ubaid and Uruk periods. Sumerian written history reaches back to the 27th century BC and before, but the historical record remains obscure until the Early Dynastic III period, c. Following the Gutian periodthere was a brief Sumerian Renaissance in the 21st century BC, cut short in the 20th century BC by invasions by the Amorites.

The Amorite "dynasty of Isin " persisted until c. The Sumerians were eventually absorbed into the Akkadian Assyro-Babylonian population. The Ubaid period is marked by a distinctive style of fine quality painted pottery which spread throughout Mesopotamia and the Persian Gulf. During this time, the first settlement in southern Mesopotamia was established at Eridu Cuneiform : nun. It appears that this culture was derived from the Samarran culture from northern Mesopotamia.

It is not known whether or not these were the actual Sumerians who are identified with the later Uruk culture. The rise of the city of Uruk may be reflected in the story of the passing of the gifts of civilization me to Inannagoddess of Uruk and of love and war, by Enkigod of wisdom and chief god of Eridu, may reflect the transition from Eridu to Uruk.

The archaeological transition from the Ubaid period to the Uruk period is marked by a gradual shift from painted pottery domestically produced on a slow wheel to a great variety of unpainted pottery mass-produced by specialists on fast wheels. The Uruk period is a continuation and an outgrowth of Ubaid with pottery being the main visible change.

By the time of the Uruk period c. It is fairly certain that it was during the Uruk period that Sumerian cities began to make use of slave labor captured from the hill country, and there is ample evidence for captured slaves as workers in the earliest texts. Artifacts, and even colonies of this Uruk civilization have been found over a wide area—from the Taurus Mountains in Turkeyto the Mediterranean Sea in the west, and as far east as central Iran. The Uruk period civilization, exported by Sumerian traders and colonists like that found at Tell Brakhad an effect on all surrounding peoples, who gradually evolved their own comparable, competing economies and cultures.

The cities of Sumer could not maintain remote, long-distance colonies by military force.


Sumerian cities during the Uruk period were probably theocratic and were most likely headed by a priest-king ensiassisted by a council of elders, including both men and women. There was little evidence of organized warfare or professional soldiers during the Uruk period, and towns were generally unwalled.

During this period Uruk became the most urbanized city in the world, surpassing for the first time 50, inhabitants.


The ancient Sumerian king list includes the early dynasties of several prominent cities from this period. The first set of names on the list is of kings said to have reigned before a major flood occurred. These early names may be fictional, and include some legendary and mythological figures, such as Alulim and Dumizid.

The end of the Uruk period coincided with the Piora oscillationa dry period from c.There's a lot to love about Hulu's streaming offerings this month—get excited for brand-new series and old favorites. See our picks. Sign In. Summer Glau Actress Producer Soundtrack. Up 54 this week. Summer is a native of San Antonio, Texas. She's been a ballerina most of her life. Her debut was in various commercials and a guest appearance on the WB's Angel Filmography by Job Trailers and Videos.


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We visited them two summers ago. Box announced that the Indiana State Fairgrounds canceled its summer fun park due to the ongoing coronavirus pandemic.

75 Insanely Easy Summer Dinner Ideas

Holcomb is optimistic about Indy plans even as smaller events are canceled," 8 July Now, all three teams will spend the summer playing against each other in the same park. Dozier," 8 Aug. An expert weighs in," 18 Mar. Send us feedback.

See more words from the same century From the Editors at Merriam-Webster. Do the Names of the Seasons Get Do the Names of the Seasons Get Capitalized? On common nouns and falling leaves Hot Enough for You? Words for the Hot Enough for You? Words for the Summer Heat Remember to stay hydrated. Accessed 18 Jul. Keep scrolling for more More Definitions for summer summer.

Entry 1 of 2 : the warmest season of the year that is after spring and before autumn summer. Entry 1 of 2 1 : the season between spring and autumn which is in the northern hemisphere usually the months of June, July, and August 2 : one of the years of a person's lifetime a youth of sixteen summers summer. Please tell us where you read or heard it including the quote, if possible. Name that color: wisteria orange chartreuse aqua Can you spell these 10 commonly misspelled words?

Test Your Knowledge - and learn some interesting things along the way. Subscribe to America's largest dictionary and get thousands more definitions and advanced search—ad free! It depends on what you base your decision.

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